The report provides details of twenty four species of pontoniine shrimp in the collections of the Australian Museum, principally from the Great Barrier Reef region of Queensland. Two new species are described and illustrated, Anchistus custoides sp.nov., and A. australis sp.nov., both associates of bivalve molluscs. Seven species are also added to the Australian fauna. Twenty species are considered to be obligate commensals of other marine invertebrates and where possible the hosts are identified. An unusual post-larval specimen, ?Araiopontonia sp., associated with a crinoid, is also described and illustrated.