The genus Pleopodias is recorded from Australia for the first time. The genus is rediagnosed, and figures given for Pleopodias sp. and P. elongatus Richardson. Twelve Australian species of Anilocra are described and figured: A. alloceracea Koelbel, A. caudata Bovallius, A. dimidiata Bleeker, A. leptosoma Bleeker, A. longicauda Schiödte & Meinert, A. ankistra n. sp., A. apogonae n. sp., A. koolanae n. sp., A. morsicata n. sp., A. nemipteri n. sp., A. pomacentri n. sp., and A. soelae n. sp. Additional figures and descriptive notes are given for A. cavicauda Richardson, that species being revalidated. Anilocra carpentariensis Avdeev is synonymised with A. dimidiata. Keys are provided for the Australian genera of the Anilocra group, and the Australian species of Anilocra.