A large collection of Pycnogonida from the Australian Museum has been examined. Of the 42 species represented 22 are new, and many others belong to species hitherto known from single specimens, or from one sex only. The following new species are described and figured: Nymphon molleri n. sp., N. novaehollandiae n. sp., N. bunyipi n. sp., Oropallene minor n. sp., Parapallene obtusirostris n. sp., Pseudopallene dubia n. sp., Stylopallene cheilorhynchus n. gen. et sp., S. dorsospinum n. sp., S. tubirostris n. sp., Pallenopsis macneilli n. sp., Anoplodactylus evansi n. sp., A. simplex n. sp., Ascorhynchus compactum n. sp., Ammothella stocki n. sp., A. thetidis n. sp., Cilunculus australiensis n. sp., C. hirsutus n. sp., Pycnogonum torresi n. sp., P. tuberculatum n. sp. Two new species of Anoplodactylus are described but not named (females only), and a new form of Callipallene is also described, but because of the confused state of the taxonomy of this genus in Australian waters it has not been named. A check-list of all 62 species recorded from the Australian region is included.