Five species of Phoronida have been recorded in Australian waters, from the vicinities of Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne: Phoronis pallida, P. psammophila, P. australis, Phoronopsis albomaculata and Phoronopsis harmeri. A diagnosis for each species is given, together with notes on their taxonomy and ecology. The descriptions of three species, Phoronis pallida, P. psammophila and Phoronopsis albomaculata, have been expanded or modified. Phoronopsis albomaculata possesses nephridia with a single funnel, not two, and sometimes has a spiral lophophore. A new key to the species of Phoronida is provided, modifying the key established by Emig (1971).