The polychaete worm family Pectinariidae is represented in Australian waters by five species (Amphictene favona n.sp., A. uniloba n.sp., Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda, 1861, P. dodeka n.sp. and P. kanabinos n.sp.). Pectinaria antipoda is redescribed and a neotype designated. Generic diagnoses are given for all genera including three not known from Australian waters. Additional characters are described for each genus that may facilitate the separation of species. A key to all genera and to species present in Australia is given, as are tables summarising the characters of all described species.