Two new species of aploactinids are described from coastal waters of subtropical eastern Australia. Pseudopataecus taenianotus, new genus and species, is described from seven specimens trawled inside the Capricorn-Bunker Group, Queensland. It is readily distinguished from other aploactinids by the markedly compressed head and body, large number of dorsal and anal-fin ray elements, frontal bone with laterally-bowed ridges forming a shallow fleshy depression, and distinctly anterior insertion of the first dorsal spine. Cocotropus microps, new species, is described from three specimens collected from inshore waters of southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. It has the lowest dorsal- and anal-fin ray counts of the genus, dorsal fin forming three elevated sections, and coloration including at least several small pale irregular spots or larger blotches. Two aploactinid species are recorded in Australian waters for the first time. Acanthosphex leurynnis Jordan & Seale, 1905, previously known from Hong Kong, Gulf of Thailand, southeast India, Indonesia and eastern Papua New Guinea, is reported from the Cumberland Group in tropical eastern Australia, Arafura Sea, Northern Territory, and near Perth, Western Australia. Xenaploactis cautes Poss & Eschmeyer, 1980, previously known only from the Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand, is reported from off Dampier, northwestern Australia and Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland.