A taxonomic report on deepwater shrimps and prawns from Eastern Australia, primarily New South Wales, is presented. The collection, which includes penaeideans and carideans, consists of 73 species. Of these, 46 represent new records for the Australian fauna, while ten species and one subspecies are described as new. These latter are: Haliporoides cristatus, H. sibogae australiensis, Pasiphaea berentsae, P. kapala, P. longitaenia, Lebbeus yaldwyni, Merhippolyte chacei, Plesionika grahami, Glyphocrangon holthuisi, G. lowryi and G. novacastellum. Locality data and diagnoses are provided for all the species. Zoogeographically, the collection is made up of two major components: those species having a widespread distribution in all the oceans, and those which are Indo-Pacific in distribution.