The taxonomic history of the New Caledonian myrmecomorph spider, Anatea formicaria Berland (Hadrotarsinae: Theridiidae) is summarized, new records are presented and the female is figured for the first time. Two new species provisionally assigned to the genus are described from north-eastern Australia, A. monteithi Smith sp. nov. and A. elongata Smith sp. nov. Some undescribed Anatea species occurring on New Caledonia are shown, and aspects of hadrotarsine anatomy and ant specialization are discussed.