Descriptions of six new species of Australian jawfishes (genus Opistognathus) are presented: O. alleni n.sp. (Western Australia), O. seminudus n.sp. (Great Barrier Reef), O. stigmosus n.sp. (Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea Plateau), O. elizabethensis n.sp. (Tasman Sea, Elizabeth Reef), O. verecundus n.sp. (northern Australia), and O. reticeps n.sp. (northern Australia). The nominal genus Tandya Whitley is discussed and provisionally synonymized with Opistognathus Cuvier. An identification key to all Australian jawfishes is provided.