Leptoceridae larvae belonging to 23 species in twelve genera are described, most for the first time. They are: Triplexa villa Mosely, Condocerus paludosus Neboiss, Notoperata maculata (Mosely), N. sparsa (Kimmins), Symphitoneuria opposita (Walker), Lectrides varians Mosely, Triplectidina nigricornis Mosely, Triplectides similis Mosely, T. proximus Neboiss, T. elongatus Banks, T. varius Kimmins, T. truncatus Neboiss, T. altenogus Morse & Neboiss, T. australicus Banks, T. ciuskus Mosely, T. australis Navás, T. volda Mosely, T. magnus (Walker), Westriplectes pedderensis Neboiss, Leptorussa darlingtoni (Banks), Leptocerus souta Mosely, Triaenodes volda Mosely, and Oecetis laustra Mosely. Keys are provided for identification of larvae to generic level and for separation of two species of Notoperata and eleven species of Triplectides. On the basis of adult, larval and pupal characters, Triplectides hamatus Morse & Neboiss is here placed as a junior synonym of T. truncatus. Most of the species described here belong to the Triplectidinae which is confined to Australasia, southern Asia, and Central and South America. Comparisons are made with known larvae from these regions. Larval habitats are described.